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Open defecation in rural India, 2015-2016: Levels and trends in the NFHS-4

Research, Sanitation1 min read

Authors: Diane Coffey, Dean Spears

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The Government of India’s NFHS-4 offers the best new data on open defecation in rural India to be released in over a decade. Although open defecation has become less common than it was ten years ago, it is still highly prevalent, with more than half of rural households reporting open defecation rather than toilet or latrine use. On average, change has been slow, even during the period of the Swachh Bharat Mission.


r.i.c.e. is a nonprofit research organization, dedicated to understanding the lives of poor people, especially young children, in India, and to promoting their well-being.

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