Skip to content


Healthiness of latrine use vs. OD

Maps1 min read

When asked whether latrine use or open defecation is healthier, most SQUAT respondents, both in houses with a latrine user and in houses with no latrine users, believe that open defecation is healthier. There is a common perception that open defecation is part of a wholesome, rural life, in which one takes a walk, gets fresh air, meets with neighbors when going to defecate. Open defecation is associated with strength and masculinity, while toilets are seen as for the old, the sick, and the weak.

Source: SQUAT Survey, 2014


r.i.c.e. is a nonprofit research organization, dedicated to understanding the lives of poor people, especially young children, in India, and to promoting their well-being.

Research Themes

Content by Category

© 2021 r.i.c.e.