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2014 and 2018 Rural Sanitation Surveys

Data1 min read

The 2014 and 2018 sanitation surveys were designed to explore the open defecation challenge in the five plains states of north India: Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.  These states are home to 40% of the population of India, and to 45% of households in India without a toilet or latrine.  At least 30% of all people worldwide who defecate in the open live in these five Indian states.   Our results, therefore, are relevant not merely to sanitation policy in India, but also to addressing the global sanitation challenge.

2014 SQUAT Survey. The 2014 Sanitation Quality, Use, Access, and Trends (SQUAT) Survey visited 13 districts in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Haryana.  See dataset, documentation, and questionnaire here.

2018 Survey of Rural Sanitation and Solid Fuel Use. The 2018 Survey of Rural Sanitation and Solid Fuel Use collected data on rural sanitation behavior, cooking fuel use, the Swacch Bharat Mission, the Ujjawala Scheme, and other topics.  Across 11 districts in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar, it visited a subset of 157 villages from the 327 villages  visited by the 2014 SQUAT survey.   See dataset, documentation, and questionnaire here.

2014 + 2018 panel.  If interested in the panel dataset that combines information from both the 2014 SQUAT Survey and the 2018 Survey of Rural Sanitation and Solid Fuel Use, see datasets and documentation here.

EPW & IZA article replication.  If you are interested in reproducing the results from either our 2014 EPW paper, or our 2019 IZA paper, you can access the datasets and/or do files to do that at the following links:

  • For Coffey, D., Gupta, A., Hathi, P., Khurana, N., Spears, D., Srivastav, N., Vyas, S. (2014). Open Defecation. Economic & Political Weekly, 49, no. 38: 43.  See here.
  • For Gupta, A., Khalid, N., Desphande, D., Hathi, P., Kapur, A., Srivastav, N., Vyas, S., Spears, D. & Coffey, D. (2019). Changes in Open Defecation in Rural North India: 2014-2018. IZA Discussion Paper No. 12065. See here.

Solid fuel article replication: See here.

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r.i.c.e. is a non-profit research organization focused on health and well-being in India. Our core focus is on children in rural north India. Our research studies health care at the start of life, sanitation, air pollution, maternal health, social inequality, and other dimensions of population-level social wellbeing.

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