research institute for compassionate economics

Maps and graphs

In this graph, we present hourly mean PM2.5 from December 2015 through January 2016 in order to examine variation in pollution over the course of the day. PM2.5 remains consistently high from 10:00PM to 10:00AM, at which point it starts decreasing...Read More..

This graph depicts daily variation in PM2.5 over December 2015 through January 2016. Over this period of time, neither the daily mean PM2.5 nor the 25th percentile ever fell as low as the Indian government limit of 60μg/m3. The lowest...Read More..

This graph shows strong seasonal variation in PM2.5. November through February are the months with the highest concentration of PM2.5, March through June are characterized by PM2.5 levels that hover near the daily limit set by the Indian government, and July...Read More..

These maps show the proportion of people defecating in the open per district in 2011. Source: Census 2011....Read More..

These maps show the number of people defecating in the open per kilometer, per district in 2001. Source: Census 2001....Read More..

Th map shows the change in people defecating in the open per square kilometer, per district, between 2001 and 2011. Districts where the density of open defecation declined are shown in blue, and districts where it increased are shown in...Read More..

These maps show the proportion of people defecating in the open per district in 2001. Source: Census 2001....Read More..

These maps show the number of people defecating in the open per kilometer, per district in 2011. Source: Census 2011....Read More..

No demand for simple latrines in India

By r.i.c.e., on November 27th, 2014

These are all countries that are poorer than India, except for China at the very end. India has both the highest rate of open defecation and the least unimproved latrines compared to any of these other countries. In India, we...Read More..

When asked whether latrine use or open defecation is healthier, most SQUAT respondents, both in houses with a latrine user and in houses with no latrine users, believe that open defecation is healthier. There is a common perception that open...Read More..

Creating a measure of ‘open defecators per square kilometer’ at the country level, this graph plots 140 country years, with each circle representing one round of a country’s Demographic and Health Survey for a single year, and the size of...Read More..

The blue pies show the percentage of poor people in each country, defined by whether they have electricity and the type of floor they have in their home. Bangladesh has a much higher fraction of poor people than India. The...Read More..

Among Hindu latrine owners, those who own government latrines are much more likely to defecate in the open than those who have built their own latrines. On the other hand, there is not such a stark difference among Muslim latrine...Read More..

For both male and female toilet owners, people who live in households with a latrine that was built with government support are more than twice as likely to defecate in the open than are people who live in households with...Read More..

This graph only includes people in houses that own a working latrine. Except for among young children, men are more likely to defecate in the open than women at every age. During late childhood and teenage years, open defecation decreases...Read More..

Latrine use among all SQUAT households

By r.i.c.e., on November 13th, 2014

This pie chart shows the fraction of households in our study in which no one defecates in the open, everyone defecates in the open and some people defecate in the open. Data sources, like the Census, which only ask whether...Read More..

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