research institute for compassionate economics

Sanitation Quality, Use, Access and Trends (SQUAT) Survey, 2014

Geography: North India

The SQUAT survey was designed to be representative of the rural open defecation challenge in five plains states of north India: Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.

The states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana are home to 40% of the population of India, and to 45% of households in India without a toilet or latrine.  At least 30% of all people worldwide who defecate in the open live in these five Indian states.   Our results, therefore, are relevant not merely to sanitation policy in India, but also to addressing the global sanitation challenge.

The survey used a four-stage sampling strategy:

Districts:  Districts were selected to match the state-level trend in rural household open defecation rates between 2001 and 2011.

Villages: We sampled from the list of villages prepared by the Government of India’s DLHS-2 survey.  Villages were randomly selected using probability proportionate to population size sampling to ensure a representative sample.

Households: Households were randomly selected using a similar in-field randomization technique to the one used in Pratham’s ASER survey.

Persons:  After completing the roster of household members, one person was randomly selected to complete the individual interview privately.

The survey was specially designed to capture the sanitation beliefs and behaviours of men and women living in north Indian villages.  We asked detailed questions to understand how people prioritize latrine use, what they think is healthy, where they defecate, why they defecate the way they do, and what they think are the advantages and disadvantages of open defecation versus latrine use.

The questionnaires and the data for the survey are available below.

1. Women’s Questionnaire (Hindi | English)

2. Men’s Questionnaire (Hindi | English)

3. SQUAT Survey, 2014 Dataset (Here)

4. SQUAT Dataset documentation (Here)